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Some researchers deem the name a loan word , possibly from a Pre-Greek language. Achilles was the son of the Nereid Thetis and of Peleus , the king of the Myrmidons.
Zeus and Poseidon had been rivals for the hand of Thetis until Prometheus , the fore-thinker, warned Zeus of a prophecy originally uttered by Themis , goddess of divine law that Thetis would bear a son greater than his father.
For this reason, the two gods withdrew their pursuit, and had her wed Peleus. There is a tale which offers an alternative version of these events: In the Argonautica 4.
Thetis, although a daughter of the sea-god Nereus , was also brought up by Hera, further explaining her resistance to the advances of Zeus.
Zeus was furious and decreed that she would never marry an immortal. According to the Achilleid , written by Statius in the 1st century AD, and to non-surviving previous sources , when Achilles was born Thetis tried to make him immortal by dipping him in the river Styx ; however, he was left vulnerable at the part of the body by which she held him: his left heel   see Achilles' heel , Achilles' tendon.
It is not clear if this version of events was known earlier. In another version of this story, Thetis anointed the boy in ambrosia and put him on top of a fire in order to burn away the mortal parts of his body.
She was interrupted by Peleus and abandoned both father and son in a rage. None of the sources before Statius make any reference to this general invulnerability.
To the contrary, in the Iliad Homer mentions Achilles being wounded: in Book 21 the Paeonian hero Asteropaeus , son of Pelagon , challenged Achilles by the river Scamander.
He cast two spears at once, one grazed Achilles' elbow, "drawing a spurt of blood". Also, in the fragmentary poems of the Epic Cycle in which one can find description of the hero's death i.
Achilles chose the former, and decided to take part in the Trojan war. According to Photius , the sixth book of the New History by Ptolemy Hephaestion reported that Thetis burned in a secret place the children she had by Peleus; but when she had Achilles, Peleus noticed, tore him from the flames with only a burnt foot, and confided him to the centaur Chiron.
Later Chiron exhumed the body of the Damysus , who was the fastest of all the giants, removed the ankle, and incorporated it into Achilles' burnt foot.
Among the appellations under which Achilles is generally known are the following: . Some post-Homeric sources  claim that in order to keep Achilles safe from the war, Thetis or, in some versions, Peleus hid the young man at the court of Lycomedes , king of Skyros.
There, Achilles is disguised as a girl and lives among Lycomedes' daughters, perhaps under the name "Pyrrha" the red-haired girl.
With Lycomedes' daughter Deidamia , whom in the account of Statius he rapes, Achilles there fathers a son, Neoptolemus also called Pyrrhus, after his father's possible alias.
According to this story, Odysseus learns from the prophet Calchas that the Achaeans would be unable to capture Troy without Achilles' aid.
Odysseus goes to Skyros in the guise of a peddler selling women's clothes and jewellery and places a shield and spear among his goods.
When Achilles instantly takes up the spear, Odysseus sees through his disguise and convinces him to join the Greek campaign.
In another version of the story, Odysseus arranges for a trumpet alarm to be sounded while he was with Lycomedes' women; while the women flee in panic, Achilles prepares to defend the court, thus giving his identity away.
According to the Iliad , Achilles arrived at Troy with 50 ships, each carrying 50 Myrmidons. He appointed five leaders each leader commanding Myrmidons : Menesthius, Eudorus , Peisander, Phoenix and Alcimedon.
In the resulting battle, Achilles gave Telephus a wound that would not heal; Telephus consulted an oracle, who stated that "he that wounded shall heal".
Guided by the oracle, he arrived at Argos , where Achilles healed him in order that he might become their guide for the voyage to Troy.
According to other reports in Euripides ' lost play about Telephus, he went to Aulis pretending to be a beggar and asked Achilles to heal his wound.
Achilles refused, claiming to have no medical knowledge. Alternatively, Telephus held Orestes for ransom, the ransom being Achilles' aid in healing the wound.
Odysseus reasoned that the spear had inflicted the wound; therefore, the spear must be able to heal it. Pieces of the spear were scraped off onto the wound and Telephus was healed.
According to the Cypria the part of the Epic Cycle that tells the events of the Trojan War before Achilles' wrath , when the Achaeans desired to return home, they were restrained by Achilles, who afterwards attacked the cattle of Aeneas , sacked neighbouring cities like Pedasus and Lyrnessus , where the Greeks capture the queen Briseis and killed Tenes , a son of Apollo , as well as Priam's son Troilus in the sanctuary of Apollo Thymbraios ; however, the romance between Troilus and Chryseis described in Geoffrey Chaucer 's Troilus and Criseyde and in William Shakespeare 's Troilus and Cressida is a medieval invention.
In Dares Phrygius ' Account of the Destruction of Troy ,  the Latin summary through which the story of Achilles was transmitted to medieval Europe, as well as in older accounts, Troilus was a young Trojan prince, the youngest of King Priam 's and Hecuba 's five legitimate sons or according other sources, another son of Apollo.
Had Troilus lived to adulthood, the First Vatican Mythographer claimed, Troy would have been invincible; however, the motif is older and found already in Plautus ' Bacchides.
Homer's Iliad is the most famous narrative of Achilles' deeds in the Trojan War. The first two lines of the Iliad read:. The Homeric epic only covers a few weeks of the decade-long war, and does not narrate Achilles' death.
It begins with Achilles' withdrawal from battle after being dishonoured by Agamemnon , the commander of the Achaean forces.
Agamemnon has taken a woman named Chryseis as his slave. Her father Chryses , a priest of Apollo , begs Agamemnon to return her to him.
Agamemnon refuses, and Apollo sends a plague amongst the Greeks. The prophet Calchas correctly determines the source of the troubles but will not speak unless Achilles vows to protect him.
Achilles does so, and Calchas declares that Chryseis must be returned to her father. Agamemnon consents, but then commands that Achilles' battle prize Briseis , the daughter of Briseus , be brought to him to replace Chryseis.
Angry at the dishonour of having his plunder and glory taken away and, as he says later, because he loves Briseis ,  with the urging of his mother Thetis, Achilles refuses to fight or lead his troops alongside the other Greek forces.
At the same time, burning with rage over Agamemnon's theft, Achilles prays to Thetis to convince Zeus to help the Trojans gain ground in the war, so that he may regain his honour.
As the battle turns against the Greeks, thanks to the influence of Zeus, Nestor declares that the Trojans are winning because Agamemnon has angered Achilles, and urges the king to appease the warrior.
Agamemnon agrees and sends Odysseus and two other chieftains, Ajax and Phoenix , to Achilles with the offer of the return of Briseis and other gifts.
Achilles rejects all Agamemnon offers him and simply urges the Greeks to sail home as he was planning to do. The Trojans, led by Hector , subsequently push the Greek army back toward the beaches and assault the Greek ships.
With the Greek forces on the verge of absolute destruction, Patroclus leads the Myrmidons into battle, wearing Achilles' armour, though Achilles remains at his camp.
Patroclus succeeds in pushing the Trojans back from the beaches, but is killed by Hector before he can lead a proper assault on the city of Troy.
After receiving the news of the death of Patroclus from Antilochus , the son of Nestor, Achilles grieves over his beloved companion's death.
His mother Thetis comes to comfort the distraught Achilles. She persuades Hephaestus to make new armour for him, in place of the armour that Patroclus had been wearing, which was taken by Hector.
The new armour includes the Shield of Achilles , described in great detail in the poem. Enraged over the death of Patroclus, Achilles ends his refusal to fight and takes the field, killing many men in his rage but always seeking out Hector.
Achilles even engages in battle with the river god Scamander , who has become angry that Achilles is choking his waters with all the men he has killed.
The god tries to drown Achilles but is stopped by Hera and Hephaestus. Zeus himself takes note of Achilles' rage and sends the gods to restrain him so that he will not go on to sack Troy itself before the time allotted for its destruction, seeming to show that the unhindered rage of Achilles can defy fate itself.
Finally, Achilles finds his prey. Achilles chases Hector around the wall of Troy three times before Athena , in the form of Hector's favorite and dearest brother, Deiphobus , persuades Hector to stop running and fight Achilles face to face.
After Hector realizes the trick, he knows the battle is inevitable. Wanting to go down fighting, he charges at Achilles with his only weapon, his sword, but misses.
Accepting his fate, Hector begs Achilles, not to spare his life, but to treat his body with respect after killing him.
Achilles tells Hector it is hopeless to expect that of him, declaring that "my rage, my fury would drive me now to hack your flesh away and eat you raw — such agonies you have caused me".
After having a dream where Patroclus begs Achilles to hold his funeral, Achilles hosts a series of funeral games in his honour.
At the onset of his duel with Hector, Achilles is referred to as the brightest star in the sky, which comes on in the autumn, Orion's dog Sirius ; a sign of evil.
With the assistance of the god Hermes Argeiphontes , Hector's father Priam goes to Achilles' tent to plead with Achilles for the return of Hector's body so that he can be buried.
Achilles relents and promises a truce for the duration of the funeral, lasting 9 days with a burial on the 10th in the tradition of Niobe 's offspring.
The poem ends with a description of Hector's funeral, with the doom of Troy and Achilles himself still to come. When Penthesilea , queen of the Amazons and daughter of Ares , arrives in Troy, Priam hopes that she will defeat Achilles.
After his temporary truce with Priam, Achilles fights and kills the warrior queen, only to grieve over her death later. Once he realized that his distraction was endangering his life, he refocused and killed her.
Following the death of Patroclus, Nestor's son Antilochus becomes Achilles' closest companion. When Memnon , son of the Dawn Goddess Eos and king of Ethiopia , slays Antilochus, Achilles once more obtains revenge on the battlefield, killing Memnon.
Consequently, Eos will not let the sun rise, until Zeus persuades her. The fight between Achilles and Memnon over Antilochus echoes that of Achilles and Hector over Patroclus, except that Memnon unlike Hector was also the son of a goddess.
Many Homeric scholars argued that episode inspired many details in the Iliad ' s description of the death of Patroclus and Achilles' reaction to it.
The episode then formed the basis of the cyclic epic Aethiopis , which was composed after the Iliad , possibly in the 7th century BC. The Aethiopis is now lost, except for scattered fragments quoted by later authors.
The exact nature of Achilles' relationship with Patroclus has been a subject of dispute in both the classical period and modern times.
In the Iliad , it appears to be the model of a deep and loyal friendship. Homer does not suggest that Achilles and his close friend Patroclus were lovers.
Commentators from classical antiquity to the present have often interpreted the relationship through the lens of their own cultures.
In 5th-century BC Athens, the intense bond was often viewed in light of the Greek custom of paiderasteia. In Plato's Symposium , the participants in a dialogue about love assume that Achilles and Patroclus were a couple; Phaedrus argues that Achilles was the younger and more beautiful one so he was the beloved and Patroclus was the lover.
Many pairs of men throughout history have been compared to Achilles and Patroclus to imply a homosexual relationship. The death of Achilles, even if considered solely as it occurred in the oldest sources, is a complex one, with many different versions.
In some versions, the god Apollo guided Paris' arrow. Some retellings also state that Achilles was scaling the gates of Troy and was hit with a poisoned arrow.
All of these versions deny Paris any sort of valour, owing to the common conception that Paris was a coward and not the man his brother Hector was, and Achilles remained undefeated on the battlefield.
His bones were mingled with those of Patroclus , and funeral games were held. He was represented in the Aethiopis as living after his death in the island of Leuke at the mouth of the river Danube.
Another version of Achilles' death is that he fell deeply in love with one of the Trojan princesses, Polyxena. Achilles asks Priam for Polyxena's hand in marriage.
Priam is willing because it would mean the end of the war and an alliance with the world's greatest warrior. But while Priam is overseeing the private marriage of Polyxena and Achilles, Paris, who would have to give up Helen if Achilles married his sister, hides in the bushes and shoots Achilles with a divine arrow, killing him.
In the Odyssey , Agamemnon informs Achilles of his pompous burial and the erection of his mound at the Hellespont while they are receiving the dead suitors in Hades.
In Book 11 of Homer's Odyssey , Odysseus sails to the underworld and converses with the shades. One of these is Achilles, who when greeted as "blessed in life, blessed in death", responds that he would rather be a slave to the worst of masters than be king of all the dead.
But Achilles then asks Odysseus of his son's exploits in the Trojan war, and when Odysseus tells of Neoptolemus' heroic actions, Achilles is filled with satisfaction.
Achilles' armour was the object of a feud between Odysseus and Telamonian Ajax Ajax the greater. They competed for it by giving speeches on why they were the bravest after Achilles to their Trojan prisoners, who after considering both men's presentations decided Odysseus was more deserving of the armour.
Furious, Ajax cursed Odysseus, which earned him the ire of Athena, who temporarily made Ajax so mad with grief and anguish that he began killing sheep, thinking them his comrades.
After a while, when Athena lifted his madness and Ajax realized that he had actually been killing sheep, he was so ashamed that he committed suicide.
Odysseus eventually gave the armour to Neoptolemus , the son of Achilles. A relic claimed to be Achilles' bronze-headed spear was for centuries preserved in the temple of Athena on the acropolis of Phaselis , Lycia, a port on the Pamphylian Gulf.
The city was visited in BC by Alexander the Great , who envisioned himself as the new Achilles and carried the Iliad with him, but his court biographers do not mention the spear; however, it was shown in the time of Pausanias in the 2nd century AD.
Numerous paintings on pottery have suggested a tale not mentioned in the literary traditions. At some point in the war, Achilles and Ajax were playing a board game petteia.
The tomb of Achilles,  extant throughout antiquity in Troad ,  was venerated by Thessalians , but also by Persian expeditionary forces, as well as by Alexander the Great and the Roman emperor Caracalla.
The cult of Achilles is illustrated in the BC Polyxena sarcophagus , where the sacrifice of Polixena near the tumulus of Achilles is depicted.
Near the Sigeium is a temple and monument of Achilles, and monuments also of Patroclus and Anthlochus. The Ilienses perform sacred ceremonies in honour of them all, and even of Ajax.
But they do not worship Hercules , alleging as a reason that he ravaged their country. The spread and intensity of the hero's veneration among the Greeks that had settled on the northern coast of the Pontus Euxinus , today's Black Sea, appears to have been remarkable.
Early dedicatory inscriptions from the Greek colonies on the Black Sea graffiti and inscribed clay disks, these possibly being votive offerings , from Olbia, the area of Berezan Island and the Tauric Chersonese  attest the existence of a heroic cult of Achilles  from the sixth century BC onwards.
The "present day" measures, he gives at this point, seem to account for an identification of Achillea or Leuce with today's Snake Island.
A second exploration in showed that the construction of a lighthouse had destroyed all traces of this temple. A fifth century BC black-glazed lekythos inscription, found on the island in , reads: "Glaukos, son of Poseidon, dedicated me to Achilles, lord of Leuke.
The Periplus of the Euxine Sea c. It is said that the goddess Thetis raised this island from the sea, for her son Achilles, who dwells there.
Here is his temple and his statue, an archaic work. This island is not inhabited, and goats graze on it, not many, which the people who happen to arrive here with their ships, sacrifice to Achilles.
In this temple are also deposited a great many holy gifts, craters, rings and precious stones, offered to Achilles in gratitude. A more likely anatomical basis for Achilles's death, assuming an unpoisoned dart, would have been an injury to his posterior tibial artery behind the medial malleolus , in between the tendons of the flexor digitorum longus and the posterior tibial vein.
This area could also have been included in Thetis 's grip. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Critical weakness which can lead to downfall in spite of overall strength. This article is about the phrase. For the anatomical part, see Achilles tendon.
For other uses, see Achilles Heel disambiguation. This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations.
Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. June Learn how and when to remove this template message.
Retrieved Lexico Dictionaries English. Ovid , Metamorphoses The British Museum Blog. Appendix, caput XII. De musculis pedii et antipedii , p. April The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery.
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Some of these animals they slaughter, others they set free on the island, in Achilles' honour. But there are others, who are forced to come to this island by sea storms.
As they have no sacrificial animals, but wish to get them from the god of the island himself, they consult Achilles' oracle. They ask permission to slaughter the victims chosen from among the animals that graze freely on the island, and to deposit in exchange the price which they consider fair.
But in case the oracle denies them permission, because there is an oracle here, they add something to the price offered, and if the oracle refuses again, they add something more, until at last, the oracle agrees that the price is sufficient.
And then the victim doesn't run away any more, but waits willingly to be caught. So, there is a great quantity of silver there, consecrated to the hero, as price for the sacrificial victims.
To some of the people who come to this island, Achilles appears in dreams, to others he would appear even during their navigation, if they were not too far away, and would instruct them as to which part of the island they would better anchor their ships.
The Greek geographer Dionysius Periegetes , who lived probably during the first century AD, wrote that the island was called Leuce "because the wild animals which live there are white.
It is said that there, in Leuce island, reside the souls of Achilles and other heroes, and that they wander through the uninhabited valleys of this island; this is how Jove rewarded the men who had distinguished themselves through their virtues, because through virtue they had acquired everlasting honour".
In this island there is also Achilles' temple and his statue". Pausanias reports that the Delphic Pythia sent a lord of Croton to be cured of a chest wound.
A number of important commercial port cities of the Greek waters were dedicated to Achilles. The kings of Epirus claimed to be descended from Achilles through his son, Neoptolemus.
Alexander the Great , son of the Epirote princess Olympias , could therefore also claim this descent, and in many ways strove to be like his great ancestor.
He is said to have visited the tomb of Achilles at Achilleion while passing Troy. The Greek tragedian Aeschylus wrote a trilogy of plays about Achilles, given the title Achilleis by modern scholars.
The tragedies relate the deeds of Achilles during the Trojan War, including his defeat of Hector and eventual death when an arrow shot by Paris and guided by Apollo punctures his heel.
Extant fragments of the Achilleis and other Aeschylean fragments have been assembled to produce a workable modern play. The first part of the Achilleis trilogy, The Myrmidons , focused on the relationship between Achilles and chorus, who represent the Achaean army and try to convince Achilles to give up his quarrel with Agamemnon; only a few lines survive today.
The tragedian Sophocles also wrote The Lovers of Achilles , a play with Achilles as the main character. Only a few fragments survive.
Towards the end of the 5th century BC, a more negative view of Achilles emerges in Greek drama; Euripides refers to Achilles in a bitter or ironic tone in Hecuba , Electra , and Iphigenia in Aulis.
The philosopher Zeno of Elea centred one of his paradoxes on an imaginary footrace between " swift-footed " Achilles and a tortoise , by which he attempted to show that Achilles could not catch up to a tortoise with a head start, and therefore that motion and change were impossible.
As a student of the monist Parmenides and a member of the Eleatic school, Zeno believed time and motion to be illusions.
The Romans, who traditionally traced their lineage to Troy, took a highly negative view of Achilles. Achilles was described by the Byzantine chronicler Leo the Deacon , not as Hellene , but as Scythian , while according to the Byzantine author John Malalas , his army was made up of a tribe previously known as Myrmidons and later as Bulgars.
The building is named the Achilleion , after Achilles. Its paintings and statuary depict scenes from the Trojan War , with particular focus on Achilles.
The embassy to Achilles, Attic red-figure hydria , c. Achilles sacrificing to Zeus for Patroclus' safe return,  from the Ambrosian Iliad , a 5th-century illuminated manuscript.
Achilles killing Penthesilea, tondo of an Attic red-figure kylix , c. Thetis and the Nereids mourning Achilles, Corinthian black-figure hydria , c.
Achilles and Ajax playing the board game petteia , black-figure oinochoe , c. Reverse: Thetis , wearing and holding the shield of Achilles with his AX monogram.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the Roman emperor with this name, see Achilleus Roman usurper.
For other uses, see Achilles disambiguation. Greek mythological hero. Main article: Achilles on Skyros. Main article: Iliad. Main article: Achilles and Patroclus.
Main article: Achilleis trilogy. Achilles and Penthesilea fighting, Lucanian red-figure bell-krater, late 5th century BC.
In Hubert Cancik; et al. Brill's New Pauly. Brill Reference Online. Accessed 5 May Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek , Brill, , pp.
The earliest ones: Corinth 7th c. The Interpretation of Mycenaean Greek Texts. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Retrieved 19 March Iliad 1.
Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften 1 : 38— Hooker Rheinisches Museum für Philologie.
Burgess The Death and Afterlife of Achilles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Retrieved 5 February The latter exhumed the body of the giant Damysos who was buried at Pallene—Damysos was the fastest of all the giants—removed the 'astragale' and incorporated it into Achilles' foot using 'ingredients'.
This 'astragale' fell when Achilles was pursued by Apollo and it was thus that Achilles, fallen, was killed. It is said, on the other hand, that he was called Podarkes by the Poet, because, it is said, Thetis gave the newborn child the wings of Arce and Podarkes means that his feet had the wings of Arce.
Albemarle Street, London. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
Pearse Greek mythographer C1st to C2nd A. Homer], because, it is said, Thetis gave the newborn child the wings of Arke Arce and Podarkes means that his feet had the wings of Arke.
And Arke was the daughter of Thaumas and her sister was Iris; both had wings, but, during the struggle of the gods against the Titanes Titans , Arke flew out of the camp of the gods and joined the Titanes.
After the victory Zeus removed her wings before throwing her into Tartaros and, when he came to the wedding of Peleus and Thetis, he brought these wings as a gift for Thetis.
Archived from the original on 9 October Retrieved 9 March Archived from the original on 30 November Vergil , Aeneid 1.
Accessed 23 October Penguin Books, The Illiad of Homer. Chicago: The University of Chicago. Harvard University Press.
There is certainly no evidence in the text of the Iliad that Achilles and Patroclus were lovers. Cambridge University Press. The ancient sources do not report, however, what modern scholars have asserted: that Alexander and his very close friend Hephaestion were lovers.
Achilles and his equally close friend Patroclus provided the legendary model for this friendship, but Homer in the Iliad never suggested that they had sex with each other.
That came from later authors. If Alexander and Hephaestion did have a sexual relationship, it would have been transgressive by majority Greek standards The Odyssey of Homer.
New York: Harper Perennial. Super Hra! Hektora jsem nedal 2. Velmi dobra hra ; 3. Achilles 2. Spustit hru.
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